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GSBN: Digest for 2/24/02

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-> Re: GSBN:GSBN, Home Power, and more
     by "m.ep" m.ep@...
-> Re: GSBN:More TLS #38, Roofs & Foundations
     by billc_lists@...
-> Long silent here but not for lack of interest
     by Strawnet@...
-> (LONG, multi-responses) Re: TLS #38, Roofs & Foundations
     by Mark Piepkorn duckchow@...
-> Errata in previous message
     by Mark Piepkorn duckchow@...
-> The hornet's nest!
     by Chris Magwood cmagwood@...
-> ducks, living roofs and CO2
     by Derek Roff derek@...


Date: 24 Feb 2002 04:29:29 -0600
From: "m.ep" m.ep@...
Subject: Re: GSBN:GSBN, Home Power, and more

Let's just say that life and its little mishaps has its way of 
working its game.
Personaly I'n neither offended nor watching until a cat fals 
out of the tree. I'm happy both of you are cooperating and 
bringing your new energy into the Last Straw. 

I too am a little surprised no articles came from this group of 
interesting and often experienced group of people. Maybe we are 
all already up too our ears in 'work', I know I am. But as you 
both suggest, there must be a way to tap into the GSBN. The SB 
movement will miss something dear if it can not.

Just as a suggestion, maybe it is time to let go of the 'theme' 
strategy a little. But integrate some of the mailing-list 
attitude of writing in TLS. 

As Chris did in his last email; launch an idea, observation or 
question and evoke the reader’s (be it GSBN or TLS reader) 
response per email. 

Would anyone in this group like to write on what is challenging 
you at the moment? What is your work and what are your finding 
and questions?

For someone on this lists (and why not Chris and Joyce) it 
could be a feasible job to collect interesting messages that 
flow through mailing lists as the GSBN, ESBN and Crest as well 
as some others I don’t follow at the moment (do I hear COB?). 
In this day of information overflow it is so nice to have a 
filter here and there. So ask the writers if you can use those 
interesting articles that ARE posted, rather than 'asking me 
write on a theme that just is not my theme at this point in my 
So TLS can add a few pages of articles just copied of the web. 
Let’s be honest, just a collection of Rob Tom’s emails on the 
Crest list, does not only teach a great deal, but would also be 
most amusing. And if the email is well written, it is OK to 
take it somewhat out of the context.

I'll write one the the present situation in France and the 
difference between what I see happening in the US and France. 


"Accedez au courrier electronique de La Poste : www.laposte.net ; 3615
LAPOSTENET  (0,13 A/mn) ; tel : 08 92 68 13 50 (0,34A/mn)"


Date: 24 Feb 2002 10:21:40 -0600
From: billc_lists@...
Subject: Re: GSBN:More TLS #38, Roofs & Foundations

Forwarded for Barbara Jones, who is having email problems.

Hi Chris,
"the reality is that most codes,
builders and owners are going to choose some "form" of concrete foundation,
especially where frost is an issue. "

Frost isn't an issue in many types of foundation, as long as you don't use
concrete! 20th century building practice (and by this I definitely mean last
century's thinking) is so concrete brainwashed that ordinary people often
don't know that there are other ways and other materials to build with. Many
of these other methods have been around for several hundreds of years, at
least! And anyway, we're building with a flexible material that can stand a
bit of movement. Some of our 400 year old houses in England look very
appealing with their crookedy walls and are certainly stable, having been
built with those lovely flexible mortars, lime or clay and withstood not
only natural movement, but two world wars as well. I mean, how much control
over nature do we want?
I did some quick calculations (so they may not be deadly accurate) and found
that straw walls weigh 65% less than brick and block walls. Also the bearing
surface of this reduced weight is 450mm not 225mm ( or 18" not 9"). This
means we can be truly radical in our design of foundation, particularly for
the smaller (sustainable) type of self/owner built house.
I live in a stone built house with lime mortar joints. The walls are 18-20
inches thick and 6 inches below the ground level is a solid clay subsoil.
That's it! No artificial foundation at all except that the bottom course of
stone is wider than the wall by about 2 inches either side. And if that's
not enough, some of our cathedrals are built on rafts of wood over a marsh!
And have been there for hundreds of years too. Our Building Regulations
allow us to use any type of foundation as long as it poses no threat to
health and safety, and we can show it's effective.
Unfortunately, though, I think you're right and most clients/builders are
still going to choose concrete. We've a way to go with our education
programme. So if anyone has got some ideas within the concrete mould of how
to reduce it's use, lets hear it.

As for living roofs, I've long been against the traditional turf roof with
massive timbers and 6 inches of soil on top cos it's just not sustainable.
But I've designed and fitted Living roofs using smaller timber, with
corrugated iron, dpc, old carpet, 25mm of gravelly soil, and shallow rooted
plants. If you're interested in the technical drawing of it I'll happily
share it.
But maybe that wasn't your disagreement with it?
Anyway, be interested to hear your comments. If they're quick I may reply
but I'm away for 2 weeks from tomorrow.
Best wishes,

Amazon Nails: Strawbale building, training, consultancy, empowerment.

Watch out for the book: Building With Straw Bales available from Green Books
in April!

     Warning! Strawbale building can seriously transform your life!

- -- 
Bill Christensen

Green Homes For Sale/Lease:  http://SustainableSources.com/realestate/
Green Building Pro Directory:  http://directory.sustainablesources.com/
Sustainable Bldg Calendar:  http://SustainableSources.com/calendar/
Sustainable Bldg Bookstore: http://SustainableSources.com/bookstore
International Strawbale Registry: http://sbregistry.sustainablesources.com


Date: 24 Feb 2002 13:13:19 -0600
From: Strawnet@...
Subject: Long silent here but not for lack of interest

Hello all

I have been pretty inactive on this list for quite a while. Not that I 
don't read all the messages eventually, but being overcommitted by a 
factor of at least two leaves less than no time to deal with the "I want 
to"s in addition to the "I need to"s.  But as it is a Sunday and I'm home 
sick (flu) and I can't spend my entire time doing the work I brought home 
with me, I felt compelled to add a few thoughts to this conversation.

First, I am grateful and delighted with Joyce and Chris for their 
commitment and willingness to get in the harness and pull TLS further 
along!  The great thing about the sb whole movement has been the fact 
that there are people willing to step up and take on the work in the 
commons. It is what has separated straw bale from many of the other 
alternative building systems. We shouldn't take it for granted however - 
it is gift and a blessing for which we should be openly thankful!

I was just writing the director's message for DCAT's 2001 annual report 
and in it reflecting on DCAT's first ten years. I was actually writing 
about patterns in the roles and general evolution of our work in straw 
bale that have reappeared in the codes work.  Rather than describing it, 
let me just share a bit of what I wrote because I think it may be 
interest and perhaps useful at this point. Sorry for the length of this...

- -------
...In the very early days of DCAT we became involved in the fledgling 
straw bale construction revival. What started as a small activity grew to 
a central focus for a few years. Early in that rapidly expanding revival, 
few people had much depth of experience or understanding of this 
century-old building system. And of the people most knowledgeable and 
experienced with straw bale construction, few had experience in 
mainstream design and building, or getting code approval for alternative 
building materials. Our early alliance with Matts Myhrman and Judy Knox 
of Out On Bale, unLtd. coupled our expertise with general and alternative 
building and some limited experience with building codes, with their 
knowledge of straw bale construction and grassroots and community 
education and organizing. When they started The Last Straw journal to 
gather and share what was being learned, I began writing articles, one of 
which was about straw bale construction and building codes. That evolved 
into a working paper and the whole thing snowballed. DCAT became "Straw 
Bale Codes Central." 

We wrote many more articles, consulted on projects, created publications, 
led workshops, seminars, and presentations all over the U.S. and abroad. 
We worked with many others to share the expertise and knowledge as 
broadly as possible. We sought out potential leaders and champions for 
the revival and collaborated with them. Many were professionals - 
architects, several engineers, contractors, and even a few building 
officials. We also helped lead some of the early research and testing 
efforts, and developed improved techniques and designs. Eventually, based 
on the testing and experience we'd gained, Matts Myhrman and I 
spearheaded the multi-year effort to write the first building code for 
load-bearing straw bale construction, which was adopted in Tucson and 
Pima County, Arizona in January 1996. 

Sometime down that path our focus began to shift to the larger set of 
institutional barriers to straw bale and other alternatives; things like 
insurance, appraisal, and financing, which, like building codes, 
frequently stand in the way of mainstreaming alternative construction. We 
realized that building codes represented a critical leverage point that 
no one else was dealing with, and so we concentrated on them, initially 
for straw bale and other alternatives, but expanding quickly to include 
the whole building regulatory arena. 

Coinciding with that shift in focus was our recognition that the straw 
bale community had matured to the point that we could slip out of our 
leadership role into more of a supporting role. We celebrated the fact 
that we had helped foster such competent competition and shared 
leadership and joyfully moved on to the next important piece of work for 
DCAT. We didn't have to search for it because it had already revealed 
itself - the need for a sustainable context for building regulation. 

That whole process emerged naturally over time as a result of our vision 
of the world we were trying to create and the alignment of our values 
with that vision. It flowed from the recognition of real, specific 
community needs into appropriate action based on our guiding principles 
of shared leadership, collaboration, leverage, equity, and synergy.

Last year we started describing our program, Building Sustainability into 
the Codes, as a three phase process. We identified the three phases as 
Awareness Building, Capacity Building, and Transferring Leadership. Guess 
what? This is the exact pattern our straw bale work had followed several 
years earlier. We realized we have a powerful and straightforward 
framework in which to envision all our systemic change work. 

Here's the beauty of this: there is enormous leverage in identifying 
where our values and goals align with those we are seeking to influence, 
and then developing a program based on that alignment which creates 
awareness of the need for change. With that awareness comes a natural 
receptiveness for the capacity building process which provides the 
knowledge, resources, and expertise needed for them to be able to change. 
And most critically, if done well, this process empowers them to 
internalize responsibility for the ongoing process.
- ----------------

I wanted to share that portion of what I was writing because it puts what 
is happening into a broader perspective. It is something that I hope we 
can maintain in the sb movement - a constant process of developing and 
sharing leadership. There was a little piece of Ralph Nader's speech when 
he accepted the nomination to run for President for the Green Party last 
time that was right on the mark - he said that the real job of leaders is 
not to create more followers but to create more leaders. I think that has 
been the strength of the straw bale movement. This isn't easy or simple, 
nor does it come naturally to most of us raised in less than ideally 
functional societies. But fostering that process is important and that 
means, in part, making sure that as new champions emerge and step 
forward, they are supported, that they don't feel alone or that they are 
the only ones pulling any weight. Not that that doesn't happen from time 
to time - it is part of the work of leaders, but it shouldn't be the 
predominant pattern.

I know that everyone on this list is busy and overcommitted.  I suspect 
that it is the same for most of you as it is for me - this isn't the 
typical workaholic response of someone running away from or avoiding 
something they don't want to have to think about or face up to, but 
rather more like the kid in the candy shop, with so many things we want 
to taste, try, do, help with, bring into being. I hope none of you are as 
busy or overcommitted as I am, because it isn't really a good or healthy 
thing. But we can each bring something to this, to support the process 
and pull some of the load.  It might just be a suggestion of something to 
look into, a person to contact for a story, a resource you came across or 
produced, etc. But probably, if you're on this list, you have something 
worth sharing. I raise my hand - guilty for too long of neglecting this 
obligation here.

So, there are things that I want to write for TLS but have felt so 
overcommitted and behind on existing obligations and commitments that 
I've been reluctant to suggest them.  Here's what I am willing to do  - 
look for those little windows when I just can't continue to work on what 
I'm working on at the moment, and create a little TLS file, wherein I 
will start (and hopefully be able to finish - I will try to impose some 
discipline but not hard deadlines - I have too many of those already) 
articles on the following topics:  

1. Developing a Straw Bale Subcontractor License Category with State 
Registrars of Contractors. (I know that this may be mostly relevant to 
the US audience and that I should have written this piece for the going 
mainstream issue). I know that those on this list who were present in 
Nebraska at the last sb gathering there, that Joyce organized, heard me 
expound on this, but this IS the way the construction system in the US 
works and if we had straw bale subcontractors, general contractors would 
be able and willing to take on sb projects within the legal and 
contractual system in which probably 90% of residential construction 
takes place. The requirements for getting this done are a national 
organization that could establish minimum requirements for someone to be 
considered a qualified bale builder - in terms of basic knowledge and 
experience, and a test that could be administered the way other 
contractor categories are, that when passed qualifies someone to become a 
licensed sb subcontractor.  I understand the resistance that has always 
been there to such a standardization and institutionalization of 
something as opposite to that paradigm as straw bale has always been. But 
I know for certain that there would be twice as many or more sb houses if 
this structure were in place, because as it stands now, someone with 
conventional bank financing who can't find a general contractor willing 
to either learn sb or put sb workers with some experience on their 
payroll to do the work, has a very difficult time getting a straw bale 
house built. I know the fear is that this will become bureaucratic and 
bring all the commercial/profiteer spirited, rather than eco and 
communitarian spirited people into sb construction and the whole thing 
will change and we will lose the essence of what has drawn so many of us 
to sb construction.  I understand the fear, I feel it myself. But I also 
know that until something like this happens, this will be a marginalized 
building system that can't become mainstream because it takes too much 
work for ordinary people to accomplish in their real lives. It's great 
that there are so many people willing to swim so hard upstream and we all 
appreciate the quality of these people when they are our clients.  But I 
don't think this will kill the grassroots, owner/builder, swim-upstream 
process, just supplement it with a path for those who want to become more 
professional, who want to create viable businesses building straw bale 
houses, and who want both the protection and distinction of being 
licensed, bonded and insured. And this would also give the national 
organization, should it ever come into being, the role of setting the 
standards for what is good practice for both design and building. Those 
who are trying to build careers in this field and who see some of the 
disasters that are possible, waiting to happen, or have already 
experienced or seen them, know that this is a step in the maturing 
process that must take place at some point to keep sb from getting a bad 
reputation. This is something that needs some real leadship, that I wish 
I had the time and energy to provide, but maybe someone or some group of 
people are out there waiting for the opportunity to step forward and such 
an article might at least create a wider discussion about this idea.  
Sorry, I didn't mean to write the article here on the list...maybe it's 
the fever...

2. Alternative Building and the Codes - Where We Are and Where We're 
Going.  I think its probably time to revisit this topic, both for sb 
codes and for the larger work that we are doing and some of the emerging 
possibilities for change. I won't write more on this now, blessedly, but 
I could....

I know that I could write about foundations and concrete, but I'm not 
going to.  Bill and Athena are already pissed enough at me for not 
finishing the rewrite of The Straw Bale House...  So there's my personal 
commitment - that and a willingness to try to be a bit more responsive to 
Joyce and Chris if and when they ask for advice, help, or comfort.

Thanks to all of you for being who you are and doing what you do in the 
world.  It is more important than ever!


David Eisenberg
Development Center for Appropriate Technology
P.O. Box 27513
Tucson, Arizona 85726-7513 USA
(520) 624-6628
(520) 798-3701 Fax
strawnet@...(direct personal e-mail)

The future is not out there in front of us, but inside us. - Joanna Macy


Date: 24 Feb 2002 16:25:40 -0600
From: Mark Piepkorn duckchow@...
Subject: (LONG, multi-responses) Re: TLS #38, Roofs & Foundations

At 11:50 PM 2/13/02, you posted:
 >I'm hoping I can enlist some of you for direction,
 >advice and material...
 >I'm looking for:...
 >Ready to be stunned by your responses...

At 10:40 AM 2/20/02, you accidentally posted:
 >To date it's netted exactly zero response!

	Joyce said that she liked the detail of your post; here's a friendly 
opposing viewpoint from my experience:

	Though it's always a crap shoot, something I learned when I was on the 
CREST list, and which was reproved when I was editor at TLS, is that the 
wonderfully thoughtful people of SB (like most wonderfully thoughtful 
people anywhere) almost never respond well to requests for the very 
general, nor for the very specific. On the one hand, imprecision opens the 
door to a universe of discourse in which almost nobody want to get mired 
(and those that do get tiresome quickly)... and on the other hand, the very 
precise leaves almost no wiggle room for people to obliquely fit in their 
own related experiences.

	Personally, I can respond to almost nothing on the list you posted. Most 
of it's too specific. Finding targets for those darts will take a lot more 
concentrated effort than a wideband broadcast, even in such a select and 
august group as that gathered on the GSBN.

	You wrote, "I don't think there's any way to do this job but to approach 
people individually, with an assignment already in mind." Some of the best 
articles in my time came in completely unsolicited, and others from general 
calls for submissions. But what you said is also true, especially in light 
of the list you presented. In my experience, approaching people one-on-one 
with a somewhat tight (but not completely firm) idea about a topic you know 
that they know about worked most consistently in getting articles. Which, 
to avoid hitting up the same people over and over (which gets annoying for 
them and for the readers) means keeping on top of news and gossip.

	Being subscribed to and actually reading not just the CREST list, but the 
regional lists and Euro lists and Aussie list and other nonSB lists 
(cordwood, earthship, cob, etc). Reading magazines. Developing 
relationships with people, not just thinking of them as sources... keeping 
in mind that first and foremost, they're *people*, and as such they're 
unique and interesting and multifaceted and they're about WAY more than SB. 
Imagine what it's like to be one of the "important" folks who are 
constantly badgered by people wanting things from them. Imagine that the 
only time they ever hear from TLS is if TLS wants something from them. I 
know how I'd feel. Sometimes people like to know that their value as an 
individual extends beyond what they can do for whoever happens to be on the 
other end of the email or phone or handshake.

	The situation reminds me of something. A few years ago, a couple guys in 
Canada sent out some excited emails - they had a big barn at their disposal 
and were going to do some SB experiments in it. I replied, asking if they'd 
keep me informed about what they were up to. Never got a reply. A couple 
months later, I sent an email asking how things were going. No response. A 
few months more pass, and I asked again. Then I gave up. Later, these guys 
decided to write a book, and sent another email around asking for 
submissions. Remembering how I'd been treated by these people, I chose not 
to respond. Usually, our futures are written by our own hands.

	Anyway, that's what I think, not that you want or need to hear it.

At 11:50 PM 2/13/02, you wrote:
 >I'm looking for:
 >-insulation options, including thoughts on bales as roof insulation

	There's a place in Maryland that used shredded blue jeans for roof 
insulation; available commercially, I don't remember the name of the 
product. Pics at http://www.potkettleblack.com/misc/williams.html , contact 
the owners from there.

	I also recall at least one party using raw wool purchased from the Navajo 
Nation, but don't remember any details. Rob Tom might.

	Bales as roof insulation, my thoughts. They need to be sealed on all sides 
with wet-applied plaster. Talk to Kelly Lerner, one of her Mongolia 
projects had bales in the ceiling which caught fire. Cost-benefit analysis 
of beefing up the structure to accommodate the extra weight vs using 
lighter-weight conventional insulation needs to be considered.

 >-leads on good people to talk to about living roofs, thatch, slate,
 >and other traditional roofing systems

	Living roofs are addressed at length below.

	Thatch, do a search at http://www.google.com on the phrase (using 
quotation marks) "master thatch."

	Slate, get with Joe Jenkins if you can. http://www.jenkinspublishing.com 
(I think)

 >-thoughts on the aesthetics of roof design

	Contact Ann Edminster. Use the phrase, "fussy, anachronistic roof lines" 
and tell her I sent you. Get a copy of her book Efficient Wood Use In 
Residential Construction, available from the NRDC. Balance the isolated 
consideration of aesthetics with environmental and pragmatic concerns.


	OK, now I'll get general. I'll just start riffing. (I don't really have 
the time or desire to research and write an article myself. Though I'm 
willing to do reviews in exchange for a copy of the thing reviewed, mostly 
because I enjoy writing reviews. Well, maybe I'll co-author something if 
somebody else takes the lead.)

	Most interesting roof thing I've seen lately was Sam Droege's 
"out"sulation method... see pics at 
http://www.potkettleblack.com/misc/sam1.html ... I think he'd be quite 
helpful in providing good details, just drop him an email from the pics 
pages. Actually, thinking about it now, it's a lot like the insulated 
earthship roofs (which are nothing more than living roofs, really), but 
without the dirt. Could incorporate that angle, too. (Just don't use the 
first earthship book as a reference - the thing has enormous, horrible 
flaws in it.)

	You could sic somebody on the relative ecological-vs-practical merits of 
various roof cladding options. I'm told that Ondura, f'rinstance, is 
significantly comprised of recycled content - but how's it last? Can you 
catch rainwater on it? There was a recycled-content fibrous-cement shingle 
on the market a while back that got pulled because it reacted adversely to 
water. Just what you want in a shingle, right? (Details in some old EBN 

	Could get with Shay Salomon, too, if you wanted, who's used metal printing 
plates to roof a couple vault projects.

	Pat Newberry made his temporary-quarters roof out of cement-soaked carpet 
(while he's been building his weird SB/earthbag hybrid, previously in TLS).

	There was a tire-roofing article from Matts a while back.

	Could have somebody review appropriate chapters of books like The 
Owner-Built Home for other homebrew options.

	The Steens have tried various things in Mexico, nearly all of which I've 
found fascinating.

	Does the book A Pattern Language have anything interesting to say about 
roofs? How about the Canadian Home Builder's Guide?

	Catherine's given presentations about living roofs at the last two Build 
Here Now events. You might do a little 'net search for other people too - 
there's at least one company out there specializing in living roofs, and I 
recall that they had a decent website. I visited a SB place under 
construction in PA that hired them and was satisfied, but it was a short 
visit and I didn't have my camera. I also seem to recall reading that one 
of them big cities in Switzerland (was it Stockholm?) passed legislation 
that all new roofs, or roofs being repaired, were required to be made into 
living roofs. The first code-approved SB house in Minnesota had a partial 
living roof; someone could contact them or their architect to see how it's 
holding up over time. Their contact info should be in the second Moisture 
issue, I think, and they were previously a Regional Rumbling. (Note that 
the area code may have changed since then - unless you call their 
architect, Jono, who was in Minneapolis.) Rob Roy has always done living 
roofs; could cite his books, or contact him for an interview.

	Oh, and there's the fascinating reciprocal roof; there's a SB place in 
England with one, and I think John Glassford's done one, and Robert Andrews 
( http://www.balewatch.com ) could be a good contact about it. See some 
pics at http://www.strawhomes.com/build/here/now2000/tour/10.html

	But this is probably mostly too hippie-dippie. For the pro/normal end of 
the spectrum, somebody could research the general topic in EBN, JLC, even 
FHB and like-that.

	Could discuss the merits and drawbacks of various truss designs vs 
rafter/ridge-beam affairs. (I like scissor trusses, though dropped-heel 
trusses are OK... but the rafter/ridge-beam approach will always be nearest 
my heart.)

	I think you should definitely do something in no uncertain terms on flat 
roofs, they're Eu#162#king pernicious for SB, always have been and always will

be, and people STILL want them. Talk with Jeff Ruppert, and see if DE and 
Matts can discuss their expert-witness dark secrets yet. There are old 
turn-of-the-century photos from New Mexico pueblos that can be dredged 
up... they show flat roofs, yes - but flat roofs with OVERHANGS. (And 
again, adobe ain't SB.) People get so wrapped up in that evil "southwest" 
look. Oh, that's another thing on this topic: research the *actual* origins 
of "Santa Fe Style." It was self-consciously derived, based on *pieces* of 
reality which were sometimes taken out of context. A few months ago, the 
Smithsonian Museum of American History had (maybe they still do) an exhibit 
about New Mexico, which had a presentation about the area's architecture; a 
sign in that presentation read, in large type: "To give Santa Fe the look 
that tourists expected to see, the city planning board in 1912 asked a 
group of archaeologists and artists to define a Santa Fe style. The group, 
which included archaeologist Jesse Nusbaum and anthropologist Edgar Hewett, 
urged that all new buildings near the old plaza have flat roofs, protruding 
roof beams, and adobe like surfaces. One observer noted that 'Santa Fe was 
a place fast becoming what it should have been.'"

	Pertinent to roof concerns, here's an email I answered recently - 
additional/opposing viewpoints could be solicited:

- ---------------
At 10:55 AM 2/12/02, Patrick Geile jonene@... wrote:
 >I have a question concerning the application of
 >stucco between the two base plates on the top
 >where the joists fit. Is it necessary to apply
 >stucco between these two base plates?  This
 >is where the rafters attach and it is difficult to
 >apply stucco up there.

	There's plenty of people who wouldn't and haven't. I'm not one of them.

A Couple Reasons To Do It

1)  To create a complete air barrier. It's been shown that the 
stucco/plaster/render is a very important part of the thermal resistance of 
the wall system. If there's an air gap between the straw and stucco (which 
could potentially develop during or after application), computer modeling 
has shown that the R value can be decreased by up to half due to convective 
loops. Following that logic, if the top of the wall isn't sealed - whether 
or not there's an air gap between the bales and finish - it could act like 
a chimney, and not perform to its thermal optimum.

2)  To keep out buggies and beasties. It's often said that critters don't 
like nesting in bales because the bales are inconveniently tight. That's 
basically true - but the generally unsaid part is that it's not *always* 
true. Particularly if there are less-dense cracks between stacked bales 
(since critters are usually just as happy to follow the path of least 
resistance as we are).
	I visited a SB house in Colorado that had a rats-in-the-wall problem. In 
that case they came up from below on the outside of the house, tunneling 
along the seams between bales, finally hollowing out a nest at about eye 
level. That house had a too-low stemwall that only brought the bales above 
ground level six inches or so; and this stemwall wasn't as wide as the 
bales, so the bales cantilevered over it three or four inches. The stucco 
was applied as you might suspect: leaving a three- to four-inch gap which 
opened directly to the bottom of the bales.

	That said, the sealer doesn't have to be cement stucco. It could be an 
earthen plaster from the site.

	Since you're foresightful enough to ask about this, I think it's probably 
safe for me to assume that you're going to detail to prevent condensation 
or leakage from dripping onto the top of the wall.
- ---------------

	Foundations. Uh.

	You could do something about basements vs not-basements... y'know, the 
traditional full foundation with basement compared to something like FPSF 
or even pier. Sara Mock of http://www.moxvox.com is fully in favor of 
basements (though she seems to particularly mean walk-out basements), where 
other people (Ken Kern was one, as I recall) are dead against them as 
foolish and pointless and little-used and needlessly expensive. Does it 
cost more to add sf by going down or up? That's first-cost, of course... 
what about life-cycle costs? It can be easier to heat those extra sf if 
they're in a basement, but at the same time basements can be a potentially 
significant contributor to heat loss. But in a milder climate with wide 
diurnal temperature swings, earth-coupled basement-like areas can be 
utilized to excellent effect. Stuff like that. Which leads into discussions 
of theories like John Hait's book Passive Annual Heat Storage, which I know 
by reputation only but seems to contradict the excellent research done by 
the Underground Space Center of the University of Minnesota (defunct).

	Could do something on self-draining foundations, an old-Europe thing. Go 
to the Amazon Nails website and download the terrific pdf document Guide To 
Straw Bale Building and check out the section on foundations for this (and 
other low-tech thoughts). You could ask Barbara to expound. But it can also 
raise some questions: What about air movement? What about ingress and 
egress into the bales for little nasties - or big ones, depending on the 
design? (Flashback to the house with the rat problem described earlier.) In 
drainage practice, what's the big difference between a self-draining 
foundation and a typical 'Murrican-bale toe-up detail that incorporates a 
weep system?

	What's better: A typical FSPS scheme where the insulation is employed in a 
horizontal skirting - or where the insulation goes vertically straight down 
into the ground (like basement walls), isolating the earth/mass directly 
below the footprint? How climate-dependant is the performance of each option?

	Could revisit ways to avoid the "superwide footing" that so many people 
*still* seem to assume is required for SB construction.

	Could talk about cantilevering, which isn't really foundations but is 
usually low to the ground and could be introduced by way of a discussion of 
pier foundations. I know of a place in West Virginia (pirated without 
permit, and as secret at the owner's request) that's built with a pole 
frame, and the bale walls are outside the poles on cantilevering plates and 
joists. Which leads to questions about the best way to insulate the joisted 

	Do followups on people who have done unusual foundation things as reported 
in previous issues of TLS. Contact 'em, see how it's going, and if they'd 
do it again.

	There was some sort of ruling recently in the US about some stuff used to 
treat wood. Don't know what it was. But it opens the door to a discussion 
of permanent wood foundations. I think there's a booklet from CMHC on the 
subject. (I think CMHC has something on EVERYTHING.) Research for an 
article on this topic could include the book The $50 And Up Underground 
House, which details ways to waterproof UNtreated wood-framed *underground* 
structures. I've been to a place in Minnesota a couple times that was built 
this way well over a decade ago, and it's outstanding and gorgeous and I 
feel completely safe inside it. No evidence of moisture intrusion ever, 
anywhere. See pics at http://www.strawbalecentral.com/lilac/lilac2.html

	Go to http://www.google.com and type in (with quotes) "alternative 


At 12:29 AM 2/22/02, Joyce wrote to Chris:
 >Could you let me know more about the non-GSBN interest
 >and offers you are receiving - maybe forwarding them to me
 >so I get an idea of who and what and when.

	As things concern TLS, I think each staffer (and I think of everyone as a 
staffer - NO hierarchy) should always know what the other is up to - 
*especially* if one of them thinks that it's none of the other person's 
business. Because that usually means that there's an ego getting freaky.

	IMO, *all* TLS email should go through the TLS email address. Bill C 
should be able to set it up like a miniature email list which resends 
incoming mail back to each staff member. This relies on each staff member 
either setting up their email program with a TLS "personality" that has the 
return-address field filled in with the TLS email address (so when people 
hit the reply-to button the response goes to the TLS email address), or 
setting up a personal TLS-only email account in the same way through one of 
the free services, like Hotmail or Yahoo.

	GSBN isn't really the best venue for it, IMO... snicker...


At 07:04 PM 2/22/02, Joyce wrote:
 >They are watching us and talking to each other about us

	I think this accidental series of posts has been more funny than anything. 
If anybody's judging you harshly as a result, I hope it remains *their* 
problem and not something that gets hung around the neck of TLS. What I've 
seen is a couple people trying VERY hard to uphold (and, if possible, 
improve) the legacy that is TLS. The only thing I haven't really cared to 
read was the idea of being manipulated toward some hidden goal... but I 
have to admit having done the very same thing in the past on the CREST 
list. (I'm still too awed by the people on GSBN - probably always will be - 
to try to pull anything over on them.)


At 01:44 PM 2/22/02, you wrote:
 >I have seen several living roofs go on bale buildings here
 >in Ontario, and I'm dubious about their value from an
 >environmental point of view. Anybody have thoughts, ideas
 >or suggestions for a well-balanced article on living roofs?
 >Otherwise, my article will end up with a slightly negative
 >tone, based on what I've seen installed.

	When a building is built, what was (usually) previously a patch of 
CO2-munching greenery becomes a patch of composite shingles or steel 
roofing or some other nonliving surface. And that doesn't include trees and 
other vegetation cleared to make yards and swimming pools and driveways and 
parking lots. Bale walls are carbon sinks, but the bale walls won't last 
forever and eventually that carbon will be released. In the meantime, a 
living roof can be working to offset that eventuality, as well as the 
emissions included in the overall embodied energy of the structure. 
Potentially, if it became a common practice, it seems that green roofs 
could be a sizable part of the step toward housing that actually 
contributes something back to the physical environment... as well as the 
emotional environment.

	Along both of those lines, gandering at a copy of Malcolm Wells' book 
Recovering America might prove illuminating.

	I ain't got numbers, so I don't know what the EE and other 
non-building-performance tradeoffs actually are. (It would, of course, vary 
enormously one example to another.) The frame will typically need beefing 
up to accommodate the extra load. In desert climates, people might end up 
wanting to water the roof like they water their unnatural lawns, and that 
would be a stupid thing to do in the face of shrinking aquifers - though it 
would increase the performance of the roof for reducing cooling loads. And 
I don't know how much C02 can be converted to 02 by green roofs of varying 
sizes and plant types. So you're right, I'm just yappin'. (Which is a 
cop-out say of saying that the variables are tremendous and need to be 
considered on a case-by-case basis, which is why it bugs me to no end when 
I read articles that are climate-centric and otherwise not encompassing... 
locally-derived opinion - and subjective to boot - disguised as universal 

	As for how they perform, a typical uninsulated living roof in a severely 
cold climate is almost pointless in terms of any benefit of thermal 
resistance. A typical living roof should be as well-insulated as a 
nonliving roof.

	The book Earth Sheltered Housing Design published by the Underground Space 
Center of the University of Minnesota in '78 has a wealth of data about 
this stuff, particularly with regard to the widely-disparate seasonal 
climate(s) of Minnesota. Cutting through the numbers, it notes, "...in 
order to compete effectively with standard insulating materials, soil 
depths in excess of 2.75m (9 ft) would be required on the roof." That 
speaks specifically to a climate like Minnesota's; less depth would be 
required in milder climates to achieve the same results.

	Nine FEET of dirt? Yikes. An insulated compromise version with comparable 
thermal resistance would have 10cm (3.9 in) of polystyrene insulation 
covered by 46 cm (18 in) of earth. Both are equivalent to 12 cm (4.6 in) of 
polystyrene and no earth cover. (Here we might remember Sam Droege's 
"out"sulation that I mentioned earlier. He used 9"-thick foam sheets that 
he got from a supplier to SIPs manufacturers.)

	The difference between the performance of these models (which didn't 
consider any greenery, just the earth cover) all have to do with mass. Just 
like the fabled thinly-distributed high mass of SB helps moderate 
temperature swings, thereby reducing space-conditioning requirements, so 
too does the mass of the earth on a living roof moderate things.

	A comparison of performance in Minnesota-January weather was made between 
an 18"-earth/4"-polystyrene roof ("Roof A") and a no-earth/4.6"-polystyrene 
roof ("Roof B"). Each had the same level of thermal resistance, and both 
were supported by concrete planking. The model weather outside was -12C, 
followed by a cold front where the temperature went down to -18C for five 
days, after which it went back up to -12C.

	Quoting the book:

	"Due to its low thermal mass, Roof B responds immediately to the change 
outside and within two days reaches a new maximum heat loss which is 
maintained for the remaining three days. When the temperature returns to 
normal, Roof B responds at once and after two days has returned to its 
normal January operating level. Roof A, however, requires a full day before 
the ceiling begins to indicate that more severe conditions now exist 
outside and once it does begin to respond, does so much more slowly than 
Roof B. After five days, when the outside temperatures return to normal, 
the heat loss of Roof A is still gradually rising having attained only 77% 
of the increase of Roof B. Roof A requires another full day before 
responding to the return of normal weather conditions.

	"...despite the much longer total response time, Roof A require 8% less 
total energy than Roof B to cope with the severe period. At the same time, 
Roof A exhibited a peak increase in load which was only 85% of that of Roof 
B. Furthermore, Roof B's low thermal mass required almost twice as much 
additional energy (196%) during the five-day period in which outside air 
temperature were most severe, thereby placing the bulk of its demand during 
the period  when the outside to inside air temperature differential was at 
its greatest and required the most energy input from the furnace to bring 
ventilation air up to room temperature."

	The R-value for these assemblies is given as "R=4.35 m2K/W" which I don't 
remember how to translate and I don't have the references with me that I 
need to look it up.

	The text does not directly address moisture content; but if the soil is 
saturated, it will be much more conductive than if it's dry. In the book's 
appendices, it's suggested that the calculations were based on "very dry" 
soil. Also in the appendices: "In studying a single case with moisture 
contents ranging from 18% to 37%... it was found that the winter heat loss 
was increased by 28%, while the summer cooling rate increased 49% for the 
wet soil as opposed to the dry. While such variations show little impact 
upon the general conclusions with respect to the advantages of earth 
sheltered housing to conventional housing, they do emphasize the impact the 
moisture content has on the thermal characteristics of the soil."

	Almost glossed over in the book are the summertime benefits of a living 
roof. "A final consideration which comes to light in determining the 
thermal value of earth cover on a roof is that of the boundary condition 
which exists at the upper surface of the roof. Vegetation on this surface 
can contribute to the thermal efficiency in a number of ways, such as 
shading effects, improved insulation due to air trapped in the foliage, and 
more important the elimination of solar heat gain to the roof during the 
summer months."

	It goes on to cite a study in which temperatures beneath asphalt surfaces 
were found to be over 140F while the air temperature was no more than 
90F... and at the same time, temperatures under grass cover were 
consistently up to 7F below ambient, depending on the length of the grass.

	What's any of it mean? That it's like anything else. A person's gotta 
research what's right for their own situation. Sometimes a 
properly-implemented living roof will provide reasonable thermal benefit, 
and sometimes it just won't be much better than other approaches. There are 
situations where the pragmatic trade-offs might favor *not* having a living 
roof. But it's about more than just thermal performance.

	I mean, what's uglier than looking at your neighbor's decrepit 
composite-shingle roof with its curling corners?




Date: 24 Feb 2002 17:12:41 -0600
From: Mark Piepkorn duckchow@...
Subject: Errata in previous message

 >There's a place in Maryland that used shredded blue
 >jeans for roof insulation; available commercially, I
 >don't remember the name of the product. Pics at
 >http://www.potkettleblack.com/misc/williams.html ,
 >contact the owners from there.

	I guess you can't contact the owners from there. You can contact Mark 
Sowers, though, at markesowers@...

 >Thatch, do a search at http://www.google.com on the
 >phrase (using quotation marks) "master thatch."

	That search should be "master thatcher"

 >Go to http://www.google.com and type in (with quotes)
 >"alternative foundation".

	That search should be: "alternative foundation" house



Date: 24 Feb 2002 21:55:15 -0600
From: Chris Magwood cmagwood@...
Subject: The hornet's nest!

Hello GSBN,

I want to thank you all for the sudden flurry of activity my mis-posted
message seems to have inspired! My personal embarrassment seems to have
been a worthy price to pay...

Many of you have responded with excellent ideas, leads and suggestions,
which I will follow up.

In my original postings to GSBN, I suggested that rather than keep asking
all of you to write articles for TLS yourselves, I was looking for advice,
direction and contacts. I realize that everybody on this list is busy, and
I want to make it my business as editor to do the actual writing and/or
commissioning of articles, not yours. But in a movement as wacky and
far-flung as sb, I'm hoping we can make like an octopus, with the GSBN
acting as the clever, all-reaching, all-knowing tentacles that throw scraps
and tidbits back to the squishy, gelatin-brained centre at TLS...

Having flattered myself with that description, I await whatever's stuck to
your suckers at the moment!



Chris Magwood / Camel's Back Straw Bale Construction



Date: 24 Feb 2002 22:04:33 -0600
From: Derek Roff derek@...
Subject: ducks, living roofs and CO2

Mark brought up the interesting question of the contribution of a 
living roof to CO2 production.  I would like to hear others thoughts 
on whether a living roof is going to give contribute more carbon 
fixing than the bales in the walls.  My first thought was, yes, of 
course it will.  On further reflection, I have my doubts.  Here's my 

Plants pull CO2 out of the air, and combine it with water, using 
solar energy, to produce carbon compounds, which are stored in the 
plant, and oxygen, which they donate back to the atmosphere.  So I'm 
thinkin' that on a living roof, we only get a net gain in carbon 
fixing, if we maintain a net gain in plant mass.  If we want to fix 
more carbon each year, then we have to increase the net plant mass 
each year.  We don't want the roof to get heavier and heavier.  So we 
either reach equilibrium on the weight and give up on more carbon 
fixing, or we continually remove plant material from the roof, and 
put it somewhere else.  If the somewhere else leads to rapid 
decomposition, then the carbon is returned to the atmosphere.  So it 
seems that we have to harvest the roof and prevent the harvested 
material from decomposing, if we want to have sustained carbon 

What am I missing here?  If I haven't left something out of the 
picture, then I think few living roofs would be making much of a 
contribution to fixing carbon.  Of course they could be contributing 
in other ways, as Mark mentioned, such as moderating temperature 
swings and shading the roof to decrease cooling requirements.


- --On Sunday, February 24, 2002 5:07 PM -0500 Mark Piepkorn 
duckchow@... wrote:

> Bale walls are
> carbon sinks, but the bale walls won't last forever and eventually
> that carbon will be released. In the meantime, a living roof can be
> working to offset that eventuality, as well as the emissions
> included in the overall embodied energy of the structure.

Derek Roff
Language Learning Center, Ortega Hall Rm 129, University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131  505/277-7368 fax 505/277-3885
Internet: derek@...


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